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Describing a Process or a Procedure
- Process: How something happens, takes place. Often uses Passive tenses
- Procedure: Giving Directions or Instructions. Usually in Active voice
Describing a process means writing about how something is made or how something happens. Examples: the rainwater cycle, how coffee is grown, how glass is made, getting a driving license, starting a business.
First, look at these introductory pages which give information on the Active and Passive voice and when they should be used.
- Layout of Process Essay
- More about the Passive
- Popcorn and Coffee: Passive and Active
- Using a Computer: Passive and Active
- Even more about the Active and Passive
- Exercise Sentences
- Changing a Tyre
- Exercise: Making Bread
- Expanding Your Essay: Adding Where or Why to each stage
- Gap-fill exercise Changing a tyre
- Process writing tips
Exercises with Resources, Videos, Background Information
Click for exercises on the following topics
- Orange Juice!
- Chocolate Manufacture
- Giving Blood - watch the video presentation
- Paper Manufacture
- How Olive Oil Is Made: Reading and Exercise with Chart (pdf Acrobat file: 267 kb). Also see this page
- Making Glass
- Fish Canning
- How a Photocopier Works
- How Crayons are Made
- How Letters are Sorted
- How Blocks are Made New!
- Fuel Cell Technology in Cars
- How to Demolish an Apartment Block
- Adding Memory To Your Computer
- The Use of Waterjets in Engineering
- Changing a Car Tyre
- Making Jellybeans
- Stanford University site with processes
- Indigo and Tie-Dyed cloth from northern Guinea: a photo-story
- How tabouleh is made + baba ganoush
- How the Pyramids were built: Past Tense and Passive
Other topics you could write about for practice:
- Getting a Driver's Licence
- How Cups are Made
- Petrol Refining
- How to Build a Runway
- How to . . .
- Getting Married in the UAE!
- Describe how to make Arabic coffee
- Describe how to get a passport
- How to Skin a Cat *
- How Coca Cola is made
- How Ice Cream is made. A BBC page
- How Peanut Butter is made, from PeanutButterLovers.com
Two sites describing how Bread is made (the kind with yeast, not flat Arabic bread)
- Botham & Co, UK Bakery site - step by step. They also have a more advanced site here
- Warburtons - a UK site, with pictures from a commercial bakery.
Vocabulary and Grammar for Writing About Process
Under procedure, we will be writing about following and giving instructions and directions.
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See other idioms with the word 'cat' here: http://www.usingenglish.com/cgi-bin/search/search.pl?Terms=cat&Realm=Idioms&submit=Go
or here: http://www.goenglish.com/Index.asp (type 'cat' in the search box)